Contrary to some claims, 23andMe haplogroups – mtDNA and Y-DNA, rely on a handful of SNPs to determine haplogroup. Both mtDNA and Y-DNA rely on other factors than SNPs to determine haplogroup. With Y-DNA, it relies on STRs and SNPs to determine haplogroup. For mtDNA, it relies on mtDNA which is may include SNPs. People wrongly assume that 23andMe gives detailed and accurate haplogroup results. They don’t. They give somewhere between a low-level haplogroup to a slightly higher haplogroup result.
I mentioned in this post – LivingDNA, 23andMe, and FTDNA Haplogroups – DNA Saturdays May 30, 2020 some differences between the different results for my mtDNA and Y-DNA haplogroups. There have been much wider ranges with 23andMe haplogroups over the years for me. When I ordered the 23andMe v3 chip back in 2013, I also ordered the full mtDNA test and Y-67 test from FamilyTree DNA (FTDNA). Big difference in results between 23andMe’s minimal haplogroup results and FTDNA’s better haplogroup estimates. I later upgraded to Big Y-500 and Big Y-700 with Y-111 upgrade at FTDNA.I upgraded to 23andMe’s v5 chip last year and was disappointed to see how far my haplogroups had changed, a serious downgrade.